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Deus Ex Musica is an ecumenical project that promotes the used of a scared music as a resource for learning, spiritual growth, and discipleship.

Finding Your Voice

Josh Rodriguez

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Young musicians, and artists in general, will often be told by their mentors, or those who are farther down the road in their journey, “you need to find your voice.” But how to do that? And, if you’re like me, you wonder why, in an age when anyone on the planet can present their art to the rest of humanity, why bother adding one more voice to all the music that’s already been composed?  Do we really need another voice, specifically your voice?

Madeleine L’Engle’s Newbury Award winning “children’s” book, A Wrinkle In Time, describes a war between light and darkness being fought on our planet. Mrs. Who, Mrs. Whatsit, and Mrs. Which, the three strange but kindly guides, teach the book’s protagonists that all of humanity’s great artists and scientists, people such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Hildegard Von Bingen, Shakespeare, Bach, Madame Curie, Einstein, Beethoven, Clara Schumann, St. Francis and many more, have been lights for us to see by in the war against the darkness. The musical equivalent of this light is what the teachers of the medieval era called “The Music of the Spheres,” the song of God that we can’t hear in our darkness. Our wounds have left our ears stopped, eyes blind, voices mute and legs lame.

And yet, sometimes we become aware that despite the darkness, we get hints of this music coming from—just over a hill? Messiaen believed that he heard it in the bird’s song. Plato believed that it existed in a dimension beyond the realm of our senses, beyond the realm of our universe. When we believe that something is “beautiful,” we believe this because somehow, we are aware of what the “form” of true beauty is. We are comparing something that is of substance in our universe, to something which is the ideal, true beauty.

Part of the attractiveness of the Gospel is that Jesus teaches that your voice is intended to help others hear The Music of the Spheres.

“You are the light of the world… let your good deeds shine out for all to see, so that everyone will praise your heavenly Father. (Mt. 5:14, 16). “As each has received a gift, use it to serve one another, as good stewards of God's varied grace.” (I Peter 4:10). “For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.” (Eph. 2:10)

Author and screenwriter Steven Pressfield has written a series of books that I have found helpful in my own search for my voice. The first of this series of books, The War of Art, states that in order to find your voice, you must overcome resistance.  

You know what resistance is. It’s negative. It can’t be seen, heard, touched or smelled, but you know it when you feel it. It’s similar to Plato’s realm of forms, but it’s just the opposite of goodness and beauty; it’s dark. It is anything that prevents you from doing your work, the work which God has prepared beforehand for you to walk in.

Pressfield calls it “the most toxic force on the planet.” Resistance takes many forms, especially comparison. Teddy Roosevelt has said that comparison is the thief of joy. It’s true. But finding your voice means that you must work to overcome resistance.

Finding your voice is work, hard work. For the musician/composer this means practice. It means overcoming your penchant for self-sabotage. It means working when you’re not . “inspired.” The painter Chuck Close has said, “Inspiration is for amateurs - the rest of us just show up and get to work.” Picasso said almost the same thing:

“Inspiration exists but it has to find you working.”

The great musical lights of the past knew this well. J.S. Bach, in his work to find his own voice, walked almost 250 miles to hear Dietrich Buxtehude present a series of concerts during Advent. He had permission from his superiors to leave his post in Arnstadt for one month to pursue what we might call today, continuing education.  The twenty year old Bach’s trip north was by all accounts, life changing. In fact, it was so enthralling that young Bach overstayed his leave by almost four months! Apparently he worked together with Buxtehude and played with him in the Advent concert series. While he was there, he copied by hand several of the master’s pieces for transport back to Arnstadt. Hand copying parts—that’s a lot of work, but many teachers feel that imitating others at first, is one of the best ways to find your own voice.

Bach hand copied a lot of music, including that of the Italian “Red Priest,” Antonio Lucio Vivaldi. In fact, Bach’s Harpsichord concerto in D Major, BMV 972, is for all intents and purposes, a copy of Vivaldi’s “L’Estro Harmonico.” But it was this work - this copying of Vivaldi’s “voice” that led to Bach finding his own “concerto” voice. For it was during his tenure at Weimar that he first came across Vivaldi’s concerti. It was also during this season that Bach wrote the bulk of his own concerti, including the magnificent Brandenburg concerti.

But aside from the work you must do to find your own voice, there is also the discovery that your voice is unique. Ephesians 2:10 may be broken up into three parts. The first states that you are one of God’s creative works, a product of His voice:  

  1. “For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus”

     The second is that you must work and do good work.

  2. “for good works,”

     Finally, you must understand and acknowledge that God has somehow, in mystery, had a hand in creating these good works for you to walk in to bring light to the darkness, “so that everyone will praise your heavenly Father.”

  3. “which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.”

Pressfield puts it this way; 

“… it's as though the Fifth Symphony existed already in that higher sphere, before Beethoven sat down and played dah-dah-dah-DUM. The catch was this: The work existed only as potential — without a body, so to speak. It wasn't music yet. You couldn't play it. You couldn't hear it. It needed someone. It needed a corporeal being, a human, an artist… to bring it into being on this material plane… Beethoven got it. He brought it forth. He made the Fifth Symphony a "creation of time," which "eternity" could be "in love with.” 

You have been given a voice by God that only you can sing with. You are part of that “Music of the Spheres” that God has created. You are His “workmanship,” a work of art in your own right. Find your voice so that you can discover who God created you to be; and what He has planned for you to “create.” Bring His good works, His light into the world, through your voice.

Glenn A. Pickett, Professor of Music Composition & Music History

California Baptist University

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Discovering liturgy: ancient rituals and new music

Josh Rodriguez

In the long journey of my faith in Christ, I have mostly walked along a path set by leaders of what is termed Evangelicalism, and most of my central beliefs are centered around biblically based theology, rather than those based on tradition. However, in the last twenty years I have fallen in love with the liturgy as practiced by many of the main line protestant churches, as well as those used as the main structure of worship by the Anglican, Orthodox and Catholic denominations. I like its structure and its discipline, and love its language. I’ve found that, in the midst of a busy day, taking time out to read and pray the liturgical hours centers my focus back to God, instead of only being caught up in the typical hectic nature of my teaching days: ones that are long, very busy, and filled with the minutiae of academic bureaucracy.

Therefore, when asked by the violin-piano duo Ascending to write them a new work, I thought that I would try and compose for them a sacred work, since they are also both Christians as well. Because they had also asked for a piece that incorporated extended techniques for both piano and violin, I thought for many months what a sacred piece that encompassed those sorts of things would look and sound like. Eventually, the idea of a ‘liturgy of the hours’ emerged, both as a means of writing a multi-movement piece, but to also bring focus to the whole: a period of time defined by the individual hours of prayer and worship over the course of a day. Typically, during the course of a day’s liturgy, the prayers begin at midnight, with Matins -- dawn begins with Lauds, moving through the morning and afternoon with Prime, Terce, Sext, None, and moving into the evening with Vespers and finally, Compline. Each prayer is about three hours apart from each other, and depending on which church’s tradition you follow, will have a set of readings, hymns, psalms, and prayers which are read, sung, or prayed. This piece is loosely based on some of those readings. psalms, and prayers, with a verse or fragment of those hours listed below. The individual movements contain some shared musical material between movements but is unlike a typical violin sonata in that the violin is not always the principal instrumentalist – indeed, most of the time, the foregrounded music is an amalgamation of both instruments. The musical language, while accessible, is contemporary to the late 20th and early 21st centuries and takes advantage of scordatura violin writing (that is, an alternative tuning of the violin), modes of limited transposition, and inside the piano techniques popularized by Olivier Messiaen, George Crumb, Henry Cowell, Charles Ives and others. This piece reflects the impressions of these hours made upon me while working on it; when reading/praying the liturgical hours, I made similar connections between the texts and scripture listed below (taken from a single day’s breviary texts) and the music as it was being written.

Matins – “Lord, open our lips and we shall praise your name” – opening invocation
Lauds – “It is good to praise the Lord and to sing psalms to your name, O Most High….” - Psalm 92:1
Prime – “When I consider the heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars which     you set into place, what is man that you should take thought of him?” – Psalm 8:3
Terce – Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia. “Listen O God, to my voice; keep me safe from fear of the    enemy. Protect me from the crowd of those who do evil.” – Psalm 64:1
Sext – “This is the song I shall sing in your name, forever and ever.” – Psalm 61:8
None - Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia. “If the Lord does not build the house, its builder labors in       vain… It is vain for you to rise before the dawn and go late to your rest, eating the bread          of your toil – to those He loves, the Lord gives sleep.” - Psalm 127:1-2
Vespers – “Return to your rest, my soul, for the Lord has been good to you.” – Psalm 116:7
Compline – “The Lord grant us a quiet night and a perfect end.” – closing benediction

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Life in a monastery also informed the final part of the process of composition; Instead of using computer technology for preparing the score, I sat for many silent hours in my own scriptorium, writing with pen, ruler, and making my own lined manuscript paper to create this piece.  In so doing, I felt my spirit become more peaceful and reach out to Christ and engage in a kind of worship that was (to me) so much more fundamentally organic than if I had used the now usual tools of my trade (computer, MIDI keyboard, software instruments, and printer) to complete the work.  This was an excellent lesson for me, echoed by the text of the hours of Sext, Vespers and Compline listed above – indeed, “Lord, grant us a quiet night and a perfect end.”

The works of my musical brothers and sisters in Christ are multifaceted, well-crafted, and in many, many styles and genre – some are simple, and others are incredibly opaque and complex.  Indeed, each of them speak in their own language and every listener understands this music by their own multilingual abilities (or not, as the case may be!), but I am overjoyed to experience a facet of those scriptures that declare

… that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow,

in heaven and on earth and under the earth,

and every tongue acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord,

to the glory of God the Father.  (Philippians 2:10-11 NIV)

I specifically aspire to be a multi-lingual composer, one who writes simply and direct one day, and who can change my musical language to speak to a differing audience the next.  To be a composer of both secular and sacred music; to write for the concert hall as well as the church; for recording and for live performance, for the world, or just for myself… or only for God.  Thankfully, we now all live in a time where this is possible, and musicians and audiences can really pick and choose how, and to what they wish to listen.  This kind of diversity in our Spotify world allows us all to become speakers and listeners of many languages, and my hope is that all who listen to music might develop into multi-lingual listeners, especially those who believe that music is vital to the life of discipleship.  The music of God is not just for the inside of the church building (although it may arise there, eh Johann Sebastian?), but can be realized or initially be presented from a concert hall, an art gallery, a theatre, a garage, an experimental multimedia laboratory… 

Or a modern scriptorium.

Gratia Deo – soli Deo Gloria!

Frank Felice, Associate Professor, Composition, Electronic Music

If you haven’t already, please take a moment to listen to A Liturgy of the Hours, a work that invites the listener into both serene meditation and exuberant celebration. Photography: The first image is taken from the last movement of Felice’s score; the second (courtesy of Pixabay) is from a monastic retreat in Gloucestershire, UK. If you are interested in contributing an article or would like to recommend a topic for exploration, please send an email to:

Ready for Every Good Work

Josh Rodriguez

My mother has a picture of me as a baby plunking the keys of a piano. I began lessons when I was three; I could read music before I could read words. I wrote my first piece when I was five. It wasn’t much, but I placed my notes on the right lines and spaces and used the correct number of beats per measure.

My parents introduced me to music; they also introduced me to Jesus. Music and faith have been essential parts of my being for as long as I can remember. In high school I sensed the two were interconnected and that part of my calling as a Christian included being a musician, so I pursued a music degree in college.

My husband and I married right after college and had two kids within the next three years. Like every mom with young children, I had decisions to make regarding work and child care. Trained in both piano and saxophone, I decided to teach privately. The flexibility allowed me to work around my family’s needs. A few years later when my husband felt called to attend seminary, we moved halfway across the country and I “set up shop” there as well, teaching as much as I could.

Teaching kids and serving as a pianist at church used only a small fraction of what I was able to do. I sometimes feared I was sinning against the Lord and wasting my talent by burying it. After some time, my husband and I decided that we needed to homeschool our children. I knew my college degree and background in education would be put to good use, but I still wondered if I should be doing more music.

II Timothy 2:21 says that we are to be vessels “set apart as holy, useful to the Master, ready for every good work.” More than anything, I wanted to be a servant faithful to my Lord. I wasn’t sure what being useful as a musician meant, or what good works looked like in terms of music, but I knew that I needed to be ready. So, I made an effort to prepare myself for further musical work.

For years, I practiced. I taught myself new material, though I didn’t have time to work on anything particularly impressive; some days I could only play scales and arpeggios. I dabbled in composition; I read theory and composition books and wrote a few rather bad pieces. I wanted to have something to present if I ever had the chance to go back to school. I gained skills and hoped God would allow me to use them someday.

I did contribute toward “good works” during those years of waiting. First, I modeled practicing. My children learned that a mom is her own person with her own interests, her own skills, her own goals, and her own needs. There were times they played in the playpen while I practiced; other times they sat on my lap while I played Beethoven sonatas, dodging their little hands that were trying to play along. I am convinced those early years of observation influenced their own practice ethic later on. They were both offered enormous music scholarships to college.

            Second, some of my students were challenged taking lessons from me. I have been commended many times for my patience, but that doesn’t mean that some students have not cried during lessons. One boy in particular brought bad habits he learned from a previous teacher. Undoing them was a painful process for both he and I, but he became one of my favorite students; I was extremely sad when his family moved away. A few years later, I received a CD in the mail. He had been selected to be a junior ambassador for the United States and had recorded the CD to raise money! In her note, his mom told me how my work with her was a key part of his being able to participate in this opportunity.

            Third, when my family moved back to Rhode Island, I had the idea to start a music program for homeschoolers. Over the last ten years, my husband (also a musician) and two friends of ours have had the privilege of teaching a number of students instrumental and vocal skills, music history and appreciation, and music theory. Several of our students now serve on the worship teams at their local churches; a few have decided to pursue music on a professional level in various ways; many have grown in confidence; my intermediate and advanced theory students have written original four-part hymn-style chorales; the class my husband teaches on world music has helped to develop appreciation for other cultures. I know this program is one of the “good works” God gave me to do while I was waiting.

After fifteen years of preparation, I finally had the opportunity to go back to school at age 37 to study composition and piano through the continuing education program at New England Conservatory.  In only five years, my career has taken off faster than I expected. I have made new connections with musicians in my community, I have had increasing opportunities to work as an accompanist, and my compositions are getting performed.

I once thought that the interconnection of faith and music in my life would have a specific theme or form. But looking back I see that, like a through-composed piece of music that has different melodies and motivic development in each section, each phase of my life has brought about different “good works” for me to do. My responsibility is to be ready and to do the good works at hand which God has given me to do, whatever they might be. May I be useful to my Master.

Heather Niemi Savage - composer, music teacher, and collaborative pianist 

If you are interested in contributing an article or would like to recommend a topic for exploration, please send an email to:  

Photo by Clark Young

Cantus firmus and the beat of Easter drums

Josh Rodriguez

In Medieval music, the cantus firmus is the principal melody upon which all other melodies are built. These melodies move in consonance or dissonance to the cantus firmus. While a modern equivalent to this kind of music making would be difficult to find, perhaps that of a groovy bass-line or jazz tune provides a near parallel: pop and jazz musicians improvising new melodies based on the original tune or on a pre-existing chord progression. The drama of the music is in the relationship between the original and the new, and this tension has profound significance for Christians. Take a moment to hear Guillaume de Machaut’s use of cantus firmus in his Messe de Nostre Dame. This excerpt from the Kyrie depicts lamentation (“Lord, have mercy”) a particularly fitting excerpt in light of the tragic fire at Notre-Dame cathedral.

In 1945, Dietrich Bonhoeffer – a Christian pastor, theologian, and anti-Nazi spy – wrote in his letters from prison,

“God wants us to love him eternally with our whole hearts – not in such a way as to injure or weaken our earthly love, but to provide a kind of cantus firmus to which the other melodies of life provide the counterpoint… Only a polyphony of this kind can give life a wholeness…as long as the cantus firmus [love of God] is kept going.”

To me, this is a true picture of the role of Christ in the life of the believer. Christ asks to be the center, and that our love for him be strongest (as his love is for us). In this way, we are to base our lives around His song. Far from weakening “earthly” loves, love for God rightly orients and orders all our other loves and, in so doing, makes them meaningful. Whether it is our treasured relationship with our spouse and children, or our appreciation of breathtaking human achievements like Paris’ Notre-Dame cathedral and Oliver Messiaen’s Turangalîla-Symphonie, or the simple joys of a hike up Saddleback Mountain in Mexico (and tacos in the evening!), love for God invigorates each and enables gratitude and praise.

This is also why C. S. Lewis writes, “I believe in Christianity as I believe that the sun has risen: not only because I see it, but because by it I see everything else.” Belief in God alters the way we see everything. In this light, that which is good, true, and beautiful becomes glorious. Love for God means love for our Creator and this must flow into love for our neighbor. This is the strong theological ground that compels us to fight against lies, hatred, poverty, and prejudice. It is this understanding of love – as the principal theme of our song – that makes sense of the invitation to freedom in Paul’s letter to the Romans (Ch. 8).

“There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death... those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit. For to set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace.”

This freedom is empowered by God’s love for us and our response to this love. This is a call to live deliberately and courageously in the Spirit. Our response is our first improvisation, the beginning of a lifelong journey – one without condemnation. “For freedom Christ has set us free” (Gal 5:1). God’s grace (the love poured out in Christ) is the cantus firmus. Our gratitude is the way we freely express our love in ways that improvise on this theme. In John Newton’s words, this is the song of those who were “once lost but now [are] found” and it transforms the way we see everything.

In 1957, Dr. Martin Luther King wrote, “[We know] that in [our] struggle for justice [we have] cosmic companionship. This belief that God is on the side of truth and justice comes down to us from the long tradition of our Christian faith.” The idea of “cosmic companionship” may seem arrogant to some, and it has no doubt been communicated poorly by many of us who call ourselves Christians, but this is the bold, radical love that followers of Christ claim. And it is this love – willing another’s good even at a great cost to oneself – that fuels and orders our many “earthly” loves. In rousing style, Dr. King concludes,

“There is something at the very center of our faith which reminds us that Good Friday may reign for a day but ultimately it must give way to the triumphant beat of the Easter drums. Evil may so shape events that Caesar will occupy the palace and Christ a cross, but one day that same Christ will rise up and split history into A.D. and B.C., so that even the life of Caesar must be dated by his name.”

May we live and love in the light of this confident truth, and may our lives birth a song worth singing. Christ is Risen! He is Risen indeed!

Josh Rodriguez, co-director of Deus-ex-Musica, Assistant Professor of Music Theory & Composition

California Baptist University

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A Song for the Outsider

Josh Rodriguez

Imagine this scenario with me. You’re an engaged, informed citizen of one of the world’s great cities. You’re active in the city’s flourishing artistic, intellectual, and religious communities. Everything in town is looking up apart from one major social issue. The population has been growing steadily thanks to the influx of immigrants seeking a better life here, but some of them have been less than successful at finding a place. Sometimes this is due to unforeseen socioeconomic circumstances, and sometimes it’s the result of systemic and individual discrimination. After all, many of these people bring with them cultural assumptions radically opposed to your own. Can you picture it?

Here are some specifics to help set the scene. The year is 721 BC, the city is Jerusalem, and the outsiders are Israelite refugees – descendants of the ten tribes that broke away from your own country 200 years ago. They’ve spent the last 200 years developing unique cultural traditions, and – as the more powerful of the two kingdoms – they’ve disparaged yours every chance they got. Now, as an informed citizen of Judah, you would never make the mistake of confusing one of these Israelites for one of you. They speak a different (though related) language, they practice different customs, and even though they claim to worship the same God they do it in a radically different way. These are outsiders, and – up until they came to your city for help – they were your enemies. How would you respond?

We learn from the Bible that the scholars and musicians of Jerusalem set out on a remarkable quest to preserve the Israelite culture, which had become quite different from their own. This story is not narrated but rather demonstrated by the materials passed down to us. Even though the Bible was mostly written and compiled by the Judahites and their descendants, their collection of Israelite history, literature, and music essentially saved Israel from succumbing completely to the cultural genocide being perpetrated against them in 721. The people themselves may now be lost to history, and yet we still sing their songs today as part of the Old Testament psalter.

Even more significantly, the musicians of Jerusalem wrote new songs to invite the Israelites into their community as well as to reorient the attitudes of the Judahites who were probably reluctant to welcome them. Perhaps the best example of this is Psalm 133, which I translate below for your convenience.

A Song of Ascents, in the style of David

Lo, how good and how pleasant it is when brothers live in unity!

It is like precious oil on the head

flowing down on the beard,

On the beard of Aaron,

Flowing down over the collar of his robes.

It is as if the dew of Hermon

Has flown down

On the mountains of Zion,

For there has Yahweh appointed the blessing – life eternal.

The fact that something more is going on beneath the surface of this psalm is apparent even from its first line. The oft quoted “how good and how pleasant” is actually a clever play on words. The word translated “good” – tov – is the standard Judahite word for good, while the word usually translated “pleasant” – na’im – is specifically the Israelite word for good. Keep in mind that these languages were closely related but still somewhat different, and an 8th century inhabitant of Jerusalem would hear this. Imagine saying “how good and que bueno” in a song for Latin American refugees today, or “how good and ma jayyid” in a song for refugees from Syria. When the psalmist says “how tov and how na’im it is for brothers to live in unity,” he isn’t just spouting a truism. He’s speaking into a specific situation. It is good for Judahites and Israelites to live together as one. It is good to welcome the outsider.

The appeal to Israelite culture doesn’t end with the use of the Israelite language, though. The psalmist also celebrates the arrival of Israelite cultural traditions in Jerusalem. When he speaks of oil flowing down on the beard of Aaron, he activates in the minds of the audience the image of Moses anointing Aaron as high priest (Leviticus 8:12). Close students of the Bible will of course remember that Aaron’s descendants made up the priesthood in Jerusalem. Meanwhile, Moses’ descendants became priests in the Israelite city of Dan (Judges 18:29-30). Overlooking the Israelite temple at Dan is the sacred mountain of Hermon, which fulfilled a role similar to that of Zion in Judah. So when the psalmist says it as if the dew of Hermon were to fall on the mountains of Zion, he means that it is as if these two temples and two priesthoods had become one. The psalmist is rejoicing at the arrival of people as well as cultural and religious traditions from Israel into Judah. He may even be celebrating the preservation of Israelite music, such as Psalm 42 (the most well-known song from the temple at Dan, now preserved in the psalter from Jerusalem). The refugees are thus not only welcomed but enthusiastically celebrated.

Exposing the heart behind the psalm reveals that it is far more than an altruistic proverb. It is a song about caring for our brothers and sisters in the Lord even when they don’t look, speak, or worship like us. It is a song about inviting outsiders – believing and unbelieving – into our community and earnestly pointing them to God. It is a song about celebrating our unity in the midst of diversity. It is reminder that although “pure and undefiled religion” involves caring for the widow and the orphan (James 1:27), it also involves welcoming the foreigner, the immigrant, and the refugee (Deuteronomy 10:18; Psalm 146:9; Jeremiah 7:6, 22:3; Zechariah 7:10; Malachi 3:5). Psalm 133 is an invitation to keep singing the songs of Israel, and to continue making music for our brothers and sisters who find themselves in need of refuge.

The psalms are still giving voice to prayers for refugees today, as in this rendition of Psalm 51 chanted in Aramaic by families of Syrian and Iraqi descent in St. Simon bar Sabbae Chaldean Catholic Church in Tbilisi, Georgia. The occasion was a prayer service for the refugee crisis performed by Pope Francis during his visit to Georgia in 2016.

Timothy Hogue, PhD Candidate in Near Eastern Languages and Cultures

University of California, Los Angeles

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A Paralytic’s Tale: learning how to walk, run, and dance

Josh Rodriguez

Getting out of bed is a simple act for most, but for a paralytic, it is the substance of dreams. To walk, run, and dance is reserved for sleep when a paralyzed person can escape his limitations. There is a story about such a person in first-century Palestine. All he knew was that he’d laid on a stretcher for many years depending on others for movement when along came a stranger named Yeshua who said, “get up, take your mat and go home.” The man did it, and “when the crowd saw this, they were filled with awe…” (Matthew 9:6-8, NIV) I imagine a scene of joyous discovery and humor as this man relearns how to walk, run, and dance. His miraculous return home was the start of a new life free from the previous limitations. I wrote a piece exploring what this journey might have been like, and it takes on the shape of a fugue.

The fugue, a musical form and compositional process especially popular in the 17th and 18th century, offers listeners a unique picture of theological “walking.” For those who may not remember your music theory teacher’s presentation on fugues, I’d like to give you a quick recap. I will also include the timings for the various sections in my fugue.

Fugues are complex, but they all feature three types of sections: an exposition, episodes, and a middle entry. The Exposition is the first music that is heard (0:00), and it is composed of the subject (main melody) and countersubject (secondary melody) of the piece presented in different keys. These are the principal musical ideas that will govern the rest of the fugue.

The Exposition is followed by a musical Episode – this part of the fugue is filled with variations on the subject and countersubject. It is filled with free counterpoint, and there is a sense that the composer is exploring the original musical ideas through improvisation – intentionally and creatively developing the material in a spontaneous, organic way (ex. 1:33 & 2:05).

This is followed by the third section called a Middle Entry which is a return of the subject and countersubject in a closely-related key. The rest of the fugue alternates between Episodes and Entries of the principal musical material (ex. 1:51 & 3:04).

Jeffrey Czum - Paralytic.png

I like to think of the fugue as a musical depiction of Christian discipleship imagined as a form of walking. In this picture, the Exposition and Middle Entries can reflect the role of Scripture and theological statements (ex. church doctrine, tradition, and liturgy) which are then improvised upon by the Spirit-led faithful in their daily lives. Believers receive the Word of God in Christ and in Scripture and gather to celebrate the Eucharist (usually in a Sunday service), but the space we live in as believers is that of the Episode. Throughout the week, we are improvisers in a spiritual and practical sense. This does not mean that we are making it up on the spot. We have chosen to build our lives around the counsel of Christ, and this becomes our point of departure in life (or at least, it is supposed to be this way). As Christians, we see ourselves in the story of the paralytic, and our response to God is one of faith – the brave choice to “get up” and live into the words of Christ.  

The ways in which disciples walk may be quite different even though they are following the Way of Jesus Christ, so the result is one of tremendous variety. However, the gospel is the unifying tune upon we Christians improvise. This redemptive gospel narrative is a force that makes possible true celebration of unity in diversity – in music and in relationships (this is what we aim to accomplish through this website)! Christians acknowledge that brokenness (paralysis) is real, but so is grace. This is God’s gift to us, and our gift to each other. In Christ, healing happens, and we can all rise up and relearn how to walk, run, and dance!  

Josh Rodriguez, co-director of Deus-ex-Musica, Assistant Professor of Music Theory & Composition

California Baptist University

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